Miniskanzen flooded municipalities Liptovská Mara

Here, 13 historically independent villages disappeared, which were flooded in 1975 by the water of the Liptovská Mara dam.

Their names will no longer be recorded only in the old maps, but also in this place.

Let us not forget the people who lived here and their destinies.

We thank those who helped in creating this project: Marek Považský, Anton Považský, Ing. Robert Hok, Vojto Zihlavnik, Ing. Estera Sevcova, Mgr. Viera Kunova, Ing. Martin Petruf, Ing. arch. Pavel Chrabačka, Miroslav Gerec, Pavel Šimovček, mMarek Považský junior, Michal Považský, Nina Považská, Prima Stavebniny, Orol Stavebniny, Záhradníctvo SILVEEX.

The project was supported by the Liptov Museum in Ružomberok, Hotel Koliba Gréta *** and the Slovak Water Management Company

INTRODUCTION

Undoubtedly, the current dominants of Liptov include the Liptovská Mara - Bešeňová system of water structures. Its waters have definitely changed the face of the landscape, continuously inhabited since the Stone Age. From the territory of ancient Slavic citizens, documented as early as the 9th century, since the 13th century the donation policy of Hungarian rulers cut out the territories where new settlement units were established, despite all the developmental changes lasting until the twentieth century. In some of them, until the 17th century, only peasants lived almost exclusively, in others they were members of the higher nobility, others developed from the 15th century as the landed towns of Liptovský, later Likavský Castle. For the needs of maintenance and functionality of the castle seat, experts from many areas of life were needed, developing their mastery in the community of servant communities.

From the 16th century, the Reformation teaching was also firmly rooted in Liptov, resulting in the building of new evangelical and church congregations.

Ownership relations to the land since the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries significantly influenced the character of the village and the social composition of the population. Workers worked on the land managed within the manor and formed a significant part of the population of the village with the manor. In other municipalities, the land was managed by independent landowners and their family members. In addition, the owners of smaller plots of land worked in the Liptov-Nicholas and Ružomberok factories, others went for seasonal work to remote parts of the monarchy, with the exception of permanent emigration, most often to America. All these facts and their mutual relations influenced everyday life, culture, the character of the settlements as well as the customs, clothing, diet, and thinking of the population. Over the centuries, a specific color of the Liptov landscape and culture has been created with many variants and peculiarities in individual villages.

The passing of time brought changes in urbanization. Some municipalities, through natural development and growth, merged into larger urban units, while maintaining their own administrative independence, while others, through internal development, were divided into internal units striving for independence. Significant changes in this direction occurred in the interwar period. The original historical municipalities became an local part of the neighboring municipalities through administrative interventions, but they still retained their internal character. Another significant wave of connecting municipalities into larger units was brought about by the period from the second half of the 1950s. It was related to the implementation of the new territorial division of Czechoslovakia. In connection with the population decline for the dam under construction at the turn of the 1960s and 1970s, the defunct municipalities merged under the report of a joint local national committee.

From the issuance of the building closure for the presumed floodplain in 1950 until the final decision to begin construction work in 1964, the inhabitants had to face many challenges. Requirements for the contribution of the future dam have changed, building plans have been re-evaluated, and approved resettlement plans have not been implemented. In a time of difficult struggles for the day-to-day future, it was necessary to have the strength and ability to face the coming pressure of contradictory decisions and often unrealistic demands. A whole generation grew up in the shadow of the future dam on the threshold of the nascent new face of Liptov.

Significant changes in connection with the dam were recorded throughout Liptov. At this point, we commemorate a total of thirteen historically independent villages, which completely disappeared under the waters of the dam. Despite their names, recorded only in the old maps, however, we also think of other villages not mentioned here, which significantly affected the induced investments of a large building. It was necessary to relocate the railway and road network, shake up electrical and telecommunications networks, build new facilities for various areas of life, as well as protection zones and safety measures. Thirteen extinct villages, of which only one was rebuilt, is a fragment in the mosaic of Liptov life from the building closure in 1950 to the launch into permanent use of the entire complex of buildings in 1976, which changed the life of the whole of Liptov.

Waterworks Liptovská Mara

History

Prior to the construction of the reservoir, archaeological rescue research was carried out, which revealed that the Liptov Basin was inhabited as early as the 9th century. The construction of Liptovská Mary raised the issue of preserving the cultural heritage located in the floodplain. The Roman Catholic Church of the Virgin Mary in Liptoská Mare was located in the Museum of the Liptov Village in Pribylina together with the transferred furniture as a museum exposition. Only the massive tower and floor plan remain in their original place. The wooden church in Paludz, one of the largest wooden churches in Central Europe, was moved to the Holy Cross. In the Havánnok Archaeological Museum there is a Celtic seat and a Druid shrine from the Late Iron Age (300 - 100 BC). A wooden castle fortified with palisades, a defensive moat and a residential tower have been preserved from the time of Slavic settlement.

Displacement of the population

Most people from municipalities in the floodplain were evicted to Liptovský Mikuláš (350 families), Ružomberok (100), Liptovská Sielnica (74) and Demänová (82), and other municipalities of more than 110 families. 50 families were undecided. The state paid almost 43 million crowns in real estate compensation to the victims. Only buildings of historical and artistic value were saved.

Construction of a waterworks

The area has always been plagued by floods, which have recur almost every year. They were destructive mainly in 1683 and 1713. In the history of Liptov from the beginning of the 19th century, the most catastrophic flood was in 1813. “It uprooted thousands of trees, including massive lindens and willows. The damage to property amounted to almost 2 million gold, and about 300 lives were lost. "

The construction of the own waterworks began at the beginning of 1970 on the basis of the approval resolution of the SSR Government from 1969. The waterworks was built by Váhostav, np in the years 1965 to 1975. The construction took place in the following terms of important stages of construction:

December 9, 1971 relocation of road no. 18 in the section Ivachnová - Liptovský Mikuláš

December 30, 1971 transfer of the Váh watercourse through the associated Bešeňová building

April 5, 1973 relocation of the railway line Liptovská Teplá - Liptovský Mikuláš

April 30, 1973 transfer of the Váh watercourse through the functional buildings of the Liptovská Mara dam

March 27, 1975 beginning of filling of the Liptovská Mara reservoir

October 30, 1977 experimental filling of the Bešeňová reservoir to the maximum operating level

July 25, 1980 reached the maximum operating level of 564.89 m above sea level

Water management operation

The purpose of the Liptovská Mara waterworks is the accumulation of water with an annual balancing cycle to improve flows for energy use, industry, agriculture and reduce flood flows.

Liptovská Mara is part of the Vážská cascade dam system. With a total volume of 361.9 mil. m3 is the largest water reservoir in Slovakia. When it swells to a height of 566 m above sea level, it floods the area with an area of almost 27 km2. The waterworks consists of a 43.5 m high (construction height 52 m) earth dam with an aluminum seal and a hydroelectric power plant with an output of 198 MW. The body of the earth dam is 1225 m long in the crown.

Energy operation

The Liptovská Mara pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant is part of a complex of buildings belonging to the Liptovská Mara waterworks. On the air side of the dam there is an accumulation top hydroelectric power plant with additional pumping. The discharge from the turbines leads to the lower buffer tank Bešeňová.

The Bešeňová water structure serves as a buffer tank for the top Liptovská Mara power plant, captures its top flows and ensures their even, smooth discharge into the Váh riverbed. The discharged water is previously used to generate electricity. The Bešeňová hydroelectric power plant has 2 machines with a horizontal chaplain turbine with an installed capacity of 2 x 2.32 MW.

Village name: ČEMICE

Presumed origin: probably 13th century

Oldest written mention: 1287

Characteristics of the village: Until the end of the 16th century, Čemice was a settlement with a peasant population, there were no subjects here, an inventory for the collection of portal tax from 1598 lists only 2 iron houses. In the last third of the 19th century, they became a settlement of Beníc. They had a common general budget. After the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic until 1921, Čemice had its own administration and seal. An agricultural breeding station operated here in the 1960s.

Dominant buildings: the manor house of the Čemický family

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"Čemice is located near Váh. Today, many buildings are buried in its stormy waters, including the seat of the Čemickýs, although it was built with the utmost precision. The village is memorable because it is the birthplace of the Čemickýs. The plain that stretches between Velká Paludza, Palúdzka, Čemice and Andic is the largest in the whole capital, as it rises through the mountains and is very suitable for measuring a military camp. The field bears wheat, and both before and after Váh it is beautified by charming groves. ”(P. 233)

Special feature of the settlement unit:

Older generations of historians dealing with the history of Liptov assumed the existence of the Kuruk military camp in the territory of Čemice at the time of the last uprising. The local Kuruk cemetery was supposed to be the last resting place of Jur Jánošík, who was executed in 1713 in Liptovský Mikuláš. Although the current state of historical knowledge has ruled out this assumption, this hypothesis nevertheless confirms the strategically important position of Čemice, which is undoubted.

Population as of 1.3.1961: 74,

Personalities:

academic painter Ladislav Čemický (* March 24, 1909 in Čemice - † January 6, 2000 in Stupava, buried in Andice) He expanded his education with renowned teachers of his time by staying abroad in an artistically stimulating environment in close contact with leading figures of world importance. He projected the acquired impulses into his own work through an intense perception of the reality of the home environment. His main domain became landscape painting, in which he captured Liptov nature and its transformations over time. However, he also worked on social and figural themes. He also devoted himself to organizational and pedagogical activities in the education of the next generation of Slovak artists.

Village name: RÁZTOKY

Expected origin: by separation from the Bobrovec municipality

Oldest written mention: 1229

Characteristics of the village:

The village is one of the oldest agricultural settlements in Liptov. In the 13th century they were owned by several peasant families, in the 16th century only the peasant population lived here permanently. Probably sometime between the 14th and 15th centuries. the original settlement expanded, separate parts of Nižné and Vyšné Ráztoky were created. The character of the village with a peasant population persisted even in the 19th century. After its establishment in 1946, the manor house housed a state farming school, managing part of the property of the former estate. It also used part of the original farm buildings, including the distillery. Ráztoky was connected to the public electricity network in 1949. The village officially ceased to exist on July 12, 1971, when its administration was taken over by a decision of the ONV by the Municipal National Committee in Liptovský Mikuláš. An extensive modern recreational complex, known as AQUAPARK TATRALANDIA, was built in the area of the defunct village.

Dominant buildings: manor house with economic facilities

The manor house built around 1770, rebuilt at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Part of the area was a park, separating the land from the state road. The economic background formed a closed urban unit, which included a distillery.

Belfry - a characteristic building for villages in which there was no church

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"Vyšné Ráztoky is located on the banks of the Váh River and is characterized by the fact that it is inhabited by several aristocratic families. Although it is a forested region, their location is relatively unfortunate because it suffers from a lack of wood. A certain part of Ráztok is owned by Lehotskovci.

Nižné Ráztoky is attributed to the property of Lehotský. A small village lies near the town by the old Váh riverbed. The Motúz family also has its property here. ”(P. 279)

Population as of 1.3.1961: 227; of the economically active population, 28.3% work in industry, 50.9% in agriculture. 48.1% work in the municipality of permanent residence

Personalities:

Matej Motúz from Nižné Ráztok, lived at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries and worked as the rector of the school in Strážky and later as a preacher in Batizovce

Village name: PARIŽOVCE

Presumed origin: by separation from the municipality of Trnovec before 1341

The oldest written mention: 1341

Characteristics of the village: the name of the village is derived from the personal name Paris, the founder of the Parižovský family. Portal register from In 1598, he mentions the owners of several Kubíni and Rakovský ironworks. At the beginning of the 17th century, the landowners of Parižovce were the Horváth family, later the Dvornikov family.

In the years 1923-1928, the district notary office was located in Parižovce.

After the completion of the Košice-Bohumín railway, Parižovce became an important transport hub, providing railway connections for municipalities in a wide range. After the Second World War, the train service was followed by a bus service, there was a starting and ending stop for connections to the whole area.

Among the economically important companies based in Parižovce, working until the demise of the village were the operations of Coal Warehouses and Štrkopieskov, supplying the entire wide area. State property managed most of the land in the area of the village and beyond. The village officially disappeared on January 1, 1968, when its administration was taken over by a decision of the ONV Liptovský Mikuláš by the Local National Committee Liptovská Sielnica.

Dominant buildings: the Gothic manor house from the 14th century is a rare building of secular architecture of Liptov from this period. A copy of the building is located in the Museum of the Liptov Village in Pribylina.

Population as of 1.3.1961: 175; 16.6% of the economically active population worked in industry, 38.8% in agriculture. 45.8% work in the municipality of permanent residence

Personalities:

Mikuláš Parižovský - in the 16th century he founded a foundation for the maintenance of the chaplain for the Church of St.

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"Parižovce excel in the tasteful manor house of the Dvornikovič family. The village was important for its ponds in the past, but their dams have already destroyed the numerous floodplains of Váh. ”(P. 279)

Village name: LIPTOVSKÁ SIELNICA

Presumed origin: one of the oldest Slavic municipalities, it existed in the 9th century

Oldest written mention: 1256

Characteristics of the village: As the only one of the flooded villages, since In 1463, it developed as an agricultural town with privileges that regulated the rights and obligations of the Sielnič family in relation to the Likava estate. Significant was the exemption from paying tolls within a radius of 12 miles from Sielnice. Richtár had the right to try disputes with the exception of the most serious crimes - murder, arson and fornication. The status of the town of Liptovská Sielnica was lost in the 1970s. The interesting duties of the townspeople of Sielnice included brewing beer for the needs of the castle estate from its own hops and manorial barley and ensuring the operation of a toll station on an important country road. Despite these opportunities for development, agriculture remained the main source of livelihood, although the town's self-sufficiency in non-agricultural production was almost entirely ensured by artisans living on its territory. Mentions of sielnice masters can be found e.g. in the guild documents of the Liptov-Mikulas guilds.

At the end of the 18th century, a tolerant evangelical and ecclesiastical church was established, which included inhabitants of the evangelical and religious groups from 13 surrounding communities. The choir also maintained a school with Slovak as the language of instruction. The town thus became a natural cultural and administrative center of the wider area, as it was also the seat of important state offices. In the second half of the 19th century, the Servants' office was located here, the notary's office lasted until the post-war years and the registry district fulfilled its function for a wide district until the end of the village. In the 19th century, a post office with an extensive delivery district was established, in 1946 the State Municipal School began teaching, its school district consisted of 18 municipalities. The fully organized school ceased to exist in 1964. The one-class primary nine-year school, which provided education in the first stage, ceased to function with the end of the school year 1973/1974, the last teacher being Justína Rendeková.

As the only one of the flooded villages, it was rebuilt after a difficult struggle with the authorities and the arrogance of power. Nová Liptovská Sielnica was ceremoniously opened on August 25, 1974 on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising.

Dominant buildings:

Roman Catholic Church of the Virgin Mary - originally Gothic, built in the 15th century, after gaining the status of a town. Rebuilt several times. In the period from the seventies of the 16th century to 1674 and in the years 1705 - 1709 he served the Evangelicals, the last significant reconstruction is from the second half of the 18th century.

Evangelical and tolerant church, built in 1783 for the 16th week, it had a hall with a flat ceiling. In 1813, significantly damaged by a natural disaster, repaired at the expense of members of the church congregation. Overhauled in 1900, in r. 1929 built tower with three bells. It expired in 1974.

Evangelical and school building - completed under difficult conditions in 1860, the place of work of APZáturecký, K. Salva, A. Zimany, J. Babka, J. Priechodský and J. Klauč. It was used for school purposes until the end of the school in the village.

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"Sielnica, a town that was once large and rich, has shrunk to such an extent due to the injustice of the times that the population today leads almost exclusively a rural way of life. From Sv. Mikuláš is divided by a distance of one Hungarian mile, he lies north of Váh in the middle of this distance. The area is spacious and fertile, and at every step it is beautified by woods. Among them is the most beautiful pine, which grows on a hillside jutting out above the town from the north. It is believed that the pine tree, which is depicted on the coat of arms of the town, should be counted among the gifts of this grove. Sanitra, the mining of which is usually very profitable for the population, testifies to the nature of the land, which is otherwise fertile and suitable for sowing grain. Elsewhere, however, there is no lack of such inhabitants, who show as much diligence as experience in its production. A predatory river flows through the town, which with its floods tends to cause damage. Because it flows from several springs above the village of Brnice, the volume of its waters often increases so much that it spills widely from the banks and causes damage not only to the town houses, but also to the fields. As long as the town flourished, there were regular and often profitable markets, but I guess the memory of them went earlier. ”(P. 269)

Population as of 1.3.1961: 632; of the economically active population, 15.7% work in industry, 52.3% in agriculture. 58.7% in the municipality of permanent residence

Personalities:

Adam Lovich (21.12.1760 - 8.12.1831) - pedagogue, superintendent of the Mining Area, reformer of education, since 1791 director of the Banská Bystrica Evangelical and grammar school. Author of school rules, which in the 19th century became the basis for teaching at grammar schools in Hungary. He was one of the founders of the Department of Czechoslovak Speech and Literature at the Bratislava Evangelical and Lyceum, which bred the Štúrovo generation. He stood at the birth and successful progress of the Learned Society of the Mining Environment.

Ing. Karol Matej Ambróz (January 6, 1877 - November 1, 1944) - mechanical and electrical engineer, chairman of the Electrotechnical Society of the Czechoslovak Republic, designer of hydroelectric power plants, significantly contributed to the electrification of Slovakia. He strived to build a modern Slovak vocational technical education, he lectured at SVŠT. In Lipt. Sielnice gave lectures for young people on technical topics in the 1920s, and from the beginning of the 1920s it was one of the main initiators in the construction of the power plant.

The municipality recalls:

Borový háj - a place which had an important position in the social life of the village. Since the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the popular Petropavlov firefighters' entertainment took place in the wider area, and in 1930 a unique theatrical performance in nature "Jánošík" took place here. Directed by Jozef Priechodský, more than 80 actors performed, including horse riders.

Urbársky mill - originally it stood above the village, in addition to the mill, there was a sawmill and a power plant since the 1920s.

The cemetery - it has been buried in it since the 18th century, is the last resting place of many important personalities who have outgrown the size of the village.

Village name: ZADIEL

Presumed origin: by separation from the Sielnice community probably in the 14th century

The oldest written mention: 1584

Characteristics of the village: In 1304, Benko, the son of Dobron of Sielnice, acquired the property on which he built a farm called Benkháza. Already at the end of the 14th century, the existence of a mill is documented in written sources on this property. Benko had no male descendants, his property became the property of other peasant families. The later Nižný Zadiel developed from this settlement. Until the 16th century, it was a curial village of the Joob, Šľachta, Andaházy, Rojko, Kubínyi families.

Vyšný Zadiel developed from a settlement, documented in writing in 1584. It probably existed in the 14th century.

Until the last third of the 19th century, Zadiel was an independent administrative and territorial unit, although the inhabited area was divided into two independently functioning parts - Vyšný Zadiel and Nižný Zadiel. At the end of the 19th century, it was administratively annexed to the village of Prosiek.

Dominant buildings: The Andaházy family built their manor house in the Nižný Zadiel part, surrounded by a park of rare trees and woody plants.

A mill has long been operating from farm buildings in Nižný Zadiel

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"Zadiel in the vicinity of the town of Sielnica is the hereditary property of the noble families Jób and Šľachta and a branch of the parish of St. Mary." (Str273).

Population as of 1.3.1961: 30

Personalities:

Žofia Šľachtová (1793 - 1847) - she married the butcher of the Liptovský Mikuláš butcher Ján Kráľ, they raised six children. Among them, the Štúrovo poet - the revolutionary Janko Kráľ (1822 - 1876) - stood out. He himself acknowledged the great influence of the mother on his perception of the world

The village reminds: the cemetery of the former village Vyšný Zadiel and the remains of the cemetery of the noble family Andaházy

Name of the village: NEŽITOVCE

Presumed origin: 13th century

Oldest written mention: 1287

Characteristics of the village: The founder is considered to be Mese and his descendants, who were in 1288 promotion to aristocratic status. The Mese family probably died out by the sword sometime during the 16th century, the Nežitovci were acquired by the Kubíni family. At that time there were only 4 iron houses. In the 17th century, the Nežitovce family became a major. The settlement of the village of Bobrovník became administrative decisions. They definitely disappeared as a part of Bobrovník.

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"Sestrč together with the Nežitovs is a village in the neighborhood of St. Mary, again in the estate of the Kubíny family. It belongs to the parish of St. Mary. ”(P. 273)

Population as of 1.3.1961: 103

Village name: SESTRČ

Presumed origin: probably in the 13th century

The oldest written mention: 1323

Characteristics of the village: the original settlement was an important communication hub at the intersection of two country roads. The background of the settlement provided shelter and provision for travelers in the inn, carriages and horses were taken care of in a blacksmith's workshop (slide). The work in the blacksmith's workshop was also performed by Romani masters, long recognized as producers of quality nails. For generations, landlords and craftsmen traveling from the fairs in Ružomberok, Nemecka Lupca, Liptovsky Mikulas exchanged important information here. After the establishment of regular bus transport, there was a transfer stop for connections to Ružomberok and L. Mikuláš. In the first half of the 20th century, the inn was renovated and modernized. A well-accessible place with plenty of fish in Váh, the intimacy of a small mansion with quality services and the facilities of the Kubán Inn have become a popular excursion place for Liptov honorarium. In the twentieth century, Sestrč was part of the village of Liptovská Mara, in the post-war years it had a Roma community.

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"Sestrč together with the Nežitovs is a village in the neighborhood of St. Mary, again in the estate of the Kubíny family. It belongs to the parish of St. Mary. ”(P. 273)

Village name: LIPTOVSKÁ MARA

Presumed origin: 9th century

The oldest written mention

Characteristics of the village: The history of the village is closely connected with the history of the church, the consecrated cult of the Virgin Mary of Joy. The sacral building on the site of today's church has been proven to exist in the 12th century. The extensive parish district and the property belonging to the church confirm its important position in the network of Liptov parishes. The settlement unit near the church took over the name according to the patronage of the church. After a busy period of disputes over secular patronage rights against the church, the Maritime Church became the center of the Reformation in the 16th century. After the establishment of the Liptov county, it was the seat of the Liptov senior. He served the Evangelicals until 1672.

In the following period, the church underwent many building and interior modifications, which underlined its importance in the system of Liptov Roman Catholic parishes. They were introduced and financially supported by the parish priests, who at that time had the title of postman. Among them, the Spiš chapter canon Andrej Ondrejkovič (1621 - 1697) stood out especially. The direct connection between the parish in Liptovská Mara and the Spišská chapital environment was reflected in the artistic and artistic solution of the modifications made.

From the 14th century, the village was divided into two parts - parish and Likava - (according to the nobility), each with its own governor. In the first half of the 14th century, a manor house was built near the church, serving the needs of representatives of the Liptov capital. In the 14th-15th centuries, it was the most frequent venue for chairmanship meetings of the Liptov nobility. Until the last decades of the 16th century, the village served simultaneously as the secular and ecclesiastical center of Liptov. It ceased to exist by a decision of the District National Committee on 1 January 1968, when its report was taken over by the Local National Committee in Liptovský Sielnica.

Extensive historical and archaeological research has been carried out in the vicinity of Liptovská Mary since the 1960s, which has provided new information about the settlement of Liptov and the important position of Liptovská Mary since ancient times, but did not confirm the assumptions of older historians about the existence of the Templar seat above Liptovská Mara. One of his ascents is a unique area of the Archaeological Museum in Havránek, presenting the period of the Celtic settlement of Liptov.

Dominant buildings: the Church of the Virgin Mary - a copy of which can be visited in the Museum of the Liptov Village in Pribylina

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"St. Mara stands on the slopes of a vast mountain and is famous for its church, which is an ancient work. Some claim that the first of all the churches that began to be built was built here when the Liptovs converted to Christianity. However, it is quite beyond doubt that the prepository of this parish flourished as early as the 12th century. To this day, it enjoys the largest property among Liptov parishes, because in addition to having several so-called branch churches, it also enjoys the ownership of not at all negligible estates, which are scattered everywhere in aristocratic villages. Above the village was allegedly once a castle built on a protruding hill, which - if you can believe it - was owned by the Templars, but the Czech camps in 1425 conquered and razed to the ground. ”(P. 265)

Population as of 1.3.1961: 329; 31% of the economically active population works in industry, 14.7% in agriculture, 13.1% in the place of permanent residence

The peculiarity of the settlement unit: In Liptovská Mare, the fate of perhaps the most famous medieval forger of royal donation documents, Ján Literát from Madočany, came to an end. The trial with him occupied all levels of the then judiciary, culminating in the border next to the church. For the deeds that Ján Literát from Madočian proved, there was only one way of serving the death penalty - burning at the border. The consequences of his activities led to the revision of property documents in 1391. Those who recognized them as valid were entered in the Liptov Register, which is today considered to be the first officially verified inventory of property conditions in the Liptov capital as a whole (area).

Personalities:

Martin Radúch (* 18.stor.Lipt. Mara -?) - teacher and mathematician, while working in Rakovnice he compiled and published a practical manual, facilitating the conversion of currency units used in Hungary.

Jozef Koreň (* Dec 7, 1887 Lipt. Mara - † 7/15/1969 Prešov). After studying at the grammar school in Ružomberok, he completed his theological studies in Bratislava, in From 1912 to 1913 he completed his education at the University of Edinburgh. At this time, at the invitation of Seton - Watson, Slovak theologians studied here, among them e.g. Martin Rázus, Vladimír Roy, Ľudovít Šenšel, ai Author of school textbooks, literary-historical, philosophical and linguistic works. He worked as a teacher at the Industrial School of Chemistry in Banská Štiavnica and the Industrial School of Civil Engineering in Prešov. Author of many professional pedagogical works, editor of the Teacher's Pedagogical Magazine. He also dealt with literary history, linguistics and philosophy.

The village recalls: the tower of the church with a marked floor plan of the nave of the church on the west bank of the dam - on the original place where the church stood. A copy of the church building, built using the original architectural elements, can be visited in the Museum of the Liptov Village in Pribylina.

Population employment:

Saints belonged to the sought-after rafters. They floated the goods all the way to the Danube.

Village name: PALUDZA

Presumed origin: one of the oldest citizens of Liptov

Oldest written mention: 1246

Characteristics of the village: from the 14th century, the Platy family and Trnkovec had their property in Paludz. After the establishment of the Evangelical and Articular Church congregation (after 1681), Paludza became an important educational and training center in Liptov. The local grammar school was staffed by literary, research and publishing teachers with a quality education, who led their students to their own literary activities. (eg Juraj Buchholtz collaborated with Matej Bel on his work Notici; Pavol Šramko devoted himself to linguistics and poetry; Matej Šulek is the author of spiritual songs, etc.) The school educated a generation completing their education at quality foreign universities, most often in Germany. After graduating, they became a benefit to their places of work in Hungary and abroad. (eg Peter Pavol Šramko and Gašpar Šulek, natives of Paludz, were active members of the Learned Society of Malohont, Ján Ambrozi worked in Germany, Samuel Lišovini published religious writings in Banská Bystrica, and many others)

Near Paludz, deposits of quality clay used by local potters for their products were sought after in nearby and more distant markets.

Since In 1923, the district notary office was located in Paludza with the area of competence for the municipalities of Benice, Lazisko, Lipt. Cross, Paludza.

Decisions related to the delayed decision to build a dam have slowed down the establishment of local radio. The radio did not start operating until 1961. The cinema was established in the late 1950s, and in 1960 it was regularly screened on Saturdays and Sundays.

Dominant buildings:

Today, the wooden evangelical and articular temple of God is one of the largest wooden sacral buildings in Europe. The original building was made in accordance with the legal articles of the Hungarian Parliament of 1681 (Sopron Assembly), it was rebuilt to its present form in the seventies of the 18th century, the work was led by master Jozef Lang. A quality school with a quality pedagogical staff was established near the church, providing lower grammar education. The teachers were literary and led their charges to do so.

Roman Catholic Church of St. The trinity from the 14th century, originally Gothic, disrupted the broken ceiling, has since fallen into disrepair. The remains of the building still stood in the village in the 50s of the 20th century

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"Veľká Paludza is located just south of the royal road in a really pleasant place, which is added by the charm of carefully laid linden trees. The crown of one of them is so large that three hundred comfortably lying men easily hide in its shadow. Noble houses are also tastefully built in the village. The church built of stone falls under the parish of St. Cross. The remainder according to the valid law, ie in accordance with the articles, a place was set aside here for the construction of an evangelical church. There are family tombs of the dead from the Kubínyov and Keberičov families. It is considered very strange that not only are snakes not born in the whole of the Great Paludzow field, but none of them can survive here either. If they are brought here from somewhere with a hay, which is used to happen, they suddenly become beaten and die immediately after sunset, although they are doing very well in the surrounding villages. The stream that irrigates the village is full of trout and muggles. Even eels will survive here, but they fall for the prey of otters. As the village field is rich in pottery suitable for making pots, the majority of the population is employed in pottery. It is the hereditary property of the Platy family. ”(P. 233)

Population as of 1.3. 1961: 440; 29.5% of the economically active population works in industry, 42.8% in agriculture, 43.8% in the municipality of permanent residence

Personalities:

Birthplace:

Gašpar Fejérpataky - Belopotocký (* 1.1.1794 - † 18.5.1874) - educational worker, publisher, organizer of Slovak amateur theater. Apprented bookbinder and bookbinder, he worked in Liptovský Mikuláš. Close collaborator of M. Blahu and MMHoju. In 1829, he founded, financed and managed the Slovak Lending Library in L. Mikuláš, which was the first Slovak public folk book rental. The new and old patriotic calendars, which he published from 1830, were the most widespread Slovak book at that time. Initiator and co-founder of the Slovak Revival Theater in Liptovský Mikuláš, which under his direction on August 22, 1830 presented Chalupka's play "Kocúrkovo". He prepared, adapted, rehearsed and performed about 40 Slovak performances.

Adam Matejka (* 21.11.1905 Paludza - † 21.4.1988 Liptovský Mikuláš) - actor, member of the Village Theater in Bratislava, later the Regional Theater in Trnava. Also known from filmmaking. He portrayed small character figures "from the people", to whom he breathed an unforgettable characteristic form. With his experience, he willingly helped theater amateurs in his native Paludza and beyond.

Village name: DECHTÁRE

Expected origin:

The oldest written mention

Characteristics of the village: The beginnings of the settlement can be traced to the turn of the 11th and 12th centuries. The inhabitants were engaged in the production of tar - a substance used to preserve timber. From the 14th century they belonged to several peasant families. The original settlement was divided into Vyšné Dechtáre and Nižné Dechtáre. This condition lasted until the last third of the 19th century. The manor house was the seat of the tarry branch of the Kubínyi family, which he had owned since 1618 Nižné Dechtáre.

In 1558, the first regular royal postal line from Bratislava to Košice was completed. The Turkish danger caused its diversion from Nitra and Prievidza via Liptov. One of the post offices was located in Vyšné Dechtáry. Among the postmaster's duties was to keep the horses on alert, able to set off immediately after the break. The postal carriage station was also a part of the tar post office.

There were three mills in the village, a distillery, a sawmill and a brickyard at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.

The slow pace of electrification at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s caused a delay in the connection of Dechtár to the public electricity network. This did not happen until 1952.

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"The tars lie on the banks of the Váh in a fertile and loving place, the choice of which is still not happy, because the river is flooding. The Kubíny manor house, an inn and a public post office provide all the glory for the village. In addition to the Kubíny family, a certain part of it also belongs to the Rakovský family.

The village of Vyšné Dechtáre, although it enjoys a fertile field, is very close to complete abandonment, because it is dangerously exposed to the Váh floodplains.

Employment of the population: In addition to the predominant agriculture, the population also dealt with rafting

Population as of 1.3.1961: 340; 33.3% of the economically active population works in industry, 49.7% in agriculture, 46.4% in the municipality of permanent residence

Personalities:

Bohdan Martin Kutlík (* Nov 11, 1838 Stará Pazova (Serbia) - † March 20, 1925 Dechtáre). After graduating in Sarvaš, Modra, Prešov, Vienna and Rostock, he worked as a pastor in Křižlice. After a failed election as pastor in Kovačice, he retired, in In 1895 he bought Rakovský's farm in Dechtáry. He adapted it to a modern economy, where he introduced modern forms of farming and its practical demonstrations for the surrounding farmers. He promoted beekeeping and contributed to the Slovak press with professional economic articles. He actively participated in the activities of the Matica of the Slovak and Museum Slovak Society. He also supported Slovak students at foreign universities.

The village reminds: motor rest Salaš Dechtáre on the rest of the highway near Liptovský Mikuláš

Village name: SOKOLČE

Presumed origin: before the 12th century

Oldest written mention:

Characteristics of the village: Poddanská royal settlement, bound by obligations to Liptovský hrad. The inhabitants performed professional services for the castle, probably as falconers. In the 15th century, two mills belonged to the village. From the 17th century there was an important rafting, rafts sailed all the way to the Danube. In the middle of the 17th century, Sokolče was given to the nobles by advance, in In 1679, a capital congregation was held here.

Until r. 1929 the seat of the district notary office with the area of competence for the municipalities of Dechtáre, Gôtovany, Sokolče, Vlachy, was re-established in 1939. Sokolče was the administrative center for these municipalities also in the years 1945 - 1950, at that time the district office of the MNV was located here.

Sokolče have a rich and successful sports past. In the statutes of 1935, the sports club set the goal "to cultivate sports, namely football, athletics, handball, tennis, water sports, boxing, volleyball, ping-pong". Success was achieved mainly by football, after the Second World War hockey was added to it. The same statutes also stipulate another area of the club's activities: "organization of parties, theaters and celebrations with the right to collect entrance fees, professional lectures and maintaining friendly contacts." 1924 and Slovenská roľnícka jednota in 1920. Cultural and educational activities were the main goal of Štefánik's educational association

The Sokol people were also excellent musicians - they invited them to perform at dance parties, majáles and balls in the surrounding and more distant villages.

In r. In 1964, Kubáň's band was officially formed, which was one of the most popular musical ensembles in the area.

Population employment:

Population as of 1.3.1961: 549; 28.8% of the economically active population work in industry, 44.0% in agriculture, 43.6% in the place of permanent residence

Matej Bell in Notices (original edition from 1736):

"The sufficiently rich village of Sokolče lies south of Váh within range of an arrow. The population earns money on rafts, on which the building is bought from everywhere by logs, because their area is relatively narrow and, with the exception of one grove, unforested. They can be deservedly called the port of Lipták, because there are a number of settlers who are experienced swimmers and know the tugs of Váh well. It can be seen how they take large costs on the raft, which these rafters then consider down the Váh river to the Danube. The manor is partly Likavian, partly aristocratic families. ”(P. 231)

Personalities:

natives:

Stanislav Guoth (* 1940 -) - under the name STAN MIKITA is a world-famous Canadian hockey player, a member of the NHL Hall of Fame

Ján Starší (* 1933 -) - Czechoslovak representative in ice hockey - member of the team of European champions in 1971, silver team at the World Cup 1961, bronze World Cup 1959, 1963; successful coach of the Czechoslovak national hockey team.

Village name: VRBIE

Presumed origin: probably during the 13th century

The oldest written mention: 1531

Characteristics of the village: Zemianska osada was probably founded sometime in the 13th century. Its name and the oldest known common coat of arms allow us to assume that this happened in a place with a widespread occurrence of willow. Until the 16th century, only peasants lived here, at the end of the 16th century a mayor was established.

The main source of livelihood for the population was agriculture. Until 1945 the land belonged to a large estate, after 1945 it remained in the state administration, after 1949 the land was managed by one of the first unified farmers' cooperatives in Liptov. The public telephone exchange was established on April 8

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